Preferred Referencing Style


Clinical Informatics and Health Outcomes Group – Preferred Referencing style: “Vancouver”

Vancouver is our preferred referencing style – and it is the the best site generic cialis shipping most commonly used in the biomedical literature.

There are slight variation in style:  Click here to download a document produced by Imperial College and Southampton University – which provides an extensive reference document:

BMJ Vancouver Style

The system is called Vancouver because a meeting was held In Vancouver in 1978 that led to the formation of for sale zetia only for you the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).  

N.B.  All students must follow the regulations for their given course – which may specify another form of referencing.  The commonest other referencing format is “Harvard”

The Vancouver system:

  • The style of referencing is the Vancouver system. References should be numbered in the text and listed consecutively at the end of the article in the order that they appear in the text. They should be assigned superscript numbers, outside any punctuation.
  • The references should follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References.


  • The list of references should include: names and initials of all authors (unless there are more than six, in which case the first three should be mentioned followed by et al.).  
  • Increasingly articles have digital object identifiers (DOI).  These uniquely identify a document.   If these are provided they should appear at the end of the reference.  

The format of references is as follows:  

Example 1: Author of whole book or other publication
1. Albert T.  Winning the look there Publication Game. Oxford : Radcliffe Publishing, 2008.
Example 2: Chapter in a book2. de Lusignan S and Robinson J.  Clinical knowledge management – A model for primary care.  In: Dwivedi A (ed) Healthcare Knowledge Management.  New York : Springer,2007, pp.11-27. 

Example 3: Journal article
3. de Lusignan S and Chan T. The Development of Primary Care Information Technology in the United Kingdom . J Ambul Care Manage. 2008;31(3):201-210.

Example 4: Journal article – adding the DOI if available

4. Hassan Sadek N, Sadek AR, Tahir A, Khunti K, Desombre T, de Lusignan S. Evaluating tools to support a new practical classification of diabetes: excellent control may represent misdiagnosis and omission from disease registers is associated with worse control. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Sep;66(9):874-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.02979.x.

Example 5: Online journal article

5. de Lusignan S, Kumarapeli P, Chan T, Pflug B, van Vlymen J, Jones B and Freeman GK.  The ALFA (Activity Log Files Aggregation) Toolkit: a method for precise observation of the consultation. J Med Internet Res 2008;10(4):e27.

Example 6: Editors of a whole book or other publication
6. Bryden J, de Lusignan S, Blobel B and Petroveki M (eds) Medical Informatics in an Enlarged Europe .  Proceedings of the European Federation for Medical Informatics Special Topic Conference. Berlin: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Aka (Aka-Verlag), 2007.

Example 7: A website

7. Biomedical Informatics. St. George’s University of London .  Activity Log File Aggregation ( ALFA ) toolkit for the observation of the computer mediated consultation.

  • Information taken from unpublished papers, personal communications and wow)) observations should only be included in the text and not referred to as a formal reference.
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their references.